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Abstract Band 65

Bläsing, Melanie (2016): Inland navigation: Emission fingerprints in the environment after fuel regulation 2009/30/EC. 158 S.

 

Abstract BBA 65

Inland navigation (IN) is of increasing importance in the transport sector, however, its contribution to environmental quality is not yet known. Accordingly, with this thesis I aimed at i) characterizing emissions of inland navigation vessels (INVs), ii) identifying IN emissions in the environment based on the exhaust characterization, and iii) investigating consequences of the S-reduction in ship diesel (EU regulation 2009/30/EC) on IN emissions in the environment. To achieve these aims, the exhaust of four INVs was analyzed regarding heavy metal, Black Carbon (BC) and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition and compared to own and literature data from road traffic, domestic heating and ocean going vessels (OGVs). To determine the short-and medium-term influence of IN on the environment, plant (vine leaves) and topsoil samples were taken from vineyards in valley transects (perpendicular to rivers) at two inland waterways (Rhine, Moselle) and one ship-free reference valley (Ahr). Samples were taken at the end of the vegetation period and analyzed for IN-specific components. To elucidate the effect of fuel regulation (operative since 2011), samplings were performed from 2010 to 2013. Additionally, the potential dispersal of IN emissions was simulated by a Lagrangian stochastic model.

 

I found characteristic emission fingerprints in the exhaust of INVs. Elevated proportions of 3-ring PAHs, as well as the ratios of V to Ni, of dibenzothiophene to phenanthrene and of 1,7/(1,7+2,6) as well as 1,7/(1,7+x4) dimethylphenanthrene characterized IN emissions and distinguished them from those of road traffic, domestic heating and OGVs. Intriguingly, these IN emissions could not be recovered on vine leaves, suggesting that they were likely low. Ship-borne emissions of heavy metals were also missing at the study sites in distances larger than 100 and 250 m to Moselle and Rhine. In contrast, soil samples indicated a clear impact of IN emissions on BC and PAH deposits, in at least 200 and 350 m distance to the Moselle and Rhine river, respectively. Soils along waterways comprised though only slightly more BC than soils in the ship-free Ahr Valley, with BC contents comparable to rural to suburban European soils. Contents of PAHs in river valleys showed a larger variation, ranging from remote to urban pollution load. Source diagnostic emission fingerprints of the exhaust study were not suitable for the identification of IN emissions in the environment. Presumably differences were too small to differentiate IN emissions from other diesel-combustion sources like road-traffic after entering the environment. Overall, already before the regulating the S-content of ship diesel by the EU directive, IN emissions caused only a small part of environmental pollution in river valleys (e.g. 30% of total soil BC).

 

In the course of the fuel regulation, BC and PAH deposits in soil were reduced within three years by ~ 30–60% relative to their contents in 2010, respectively. Also the quality of emissions changed to higher shares of low molecular weight PAHs and smaller proportions of soot-BC, indicating less deposition of IN emissions. These changes caused by the fuel regulation served as unique tracer for IN emissions in the environment. The impact of the fuel regulation was more obvious at the Rhine Valley than at the Moselle Valley, because of higher ship traffic volume at the former. Consequently, fuel regulation was effective in reducing IN emissions in the environment.
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